Examine the factors that have led to recent police innovations and recent innovations in the study of policing. Critically explores the effects of such policies on crime and disorder, on research practices, as well as unintended consequences on community, police abuse and police organization. Which policies have been found to be effective? What types of practices work most effectively for what type of crime and disorder problems? Has there been sufficient research for us to come to solid conclusions regarding these questions? Does present research fit the practices of the police?